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It is a branch of science that uses the radiant energy (radiant energy) to display the details of the body's invisible depths. The main fields of application of Radiology are x-rays, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, many imaging methods such as mammography and angiography are special radiological methods that work with the same basic principles.
Who is a radiologist?
Radiology Specialists use imaging modalities for the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of diseases and evaluate the resulting images. They are physicians who determine the appropriate examinations for the patient's condition and the possible disease and who have received radiology specialty training following medical school education.
Who is a radiologist?
The radiology workers who provide radiological images and are trained in this field by using imaging methods planned to be applied for the diagnosis of diseases in medicine.
What are the radiological imaging methods?
Radiological imaging methods are all methods in which radiated radiation (radiant energy or radiation), such as electromagnetic radiation or sound, is used for medical imaging. These methods are mainly X-ray, Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
What is X-ray?
X-ray defines all of the radiographic examinations that x-rays are used for medical purposes. It is the first radiological imaging method used by humanity. It was named in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Today, it is still one of the most commonly used methods in radiological examinations. Radiography and radiograph methods are the radiographs of the X-ray image. Radiography is similar to photo and radioscopy is similar to video. Mammography devices are based on radiography principle, and angiography and other drugs are used in radiographs.
What is ultrasound?
This is a method of review where high frequency sound waves are used for imaging. The method works with the physical principle of the reflection of the sound. It shows in detail the parts of the body consisting of especially soft tissue. It is more successful near the surface. Bones and air levels are unsuccessful. It is one of the most useful and reliable radiological methods with no known harmful effects.
What is Computed Tomography?
X - ray imaging is a method of imaging the recipient of the image around the patient, allowing the visualization of the inner detail and soft tissues of the body, which are developed on the basis of basic x-ray principles and not seen on X-rays. In the method, the internal details of the body are displayed in a cross-section and thus three-dimensional data is provided. It contains higher ionizing radiation than x-ray. Newly produced devices that are also shooting with lower radiation doses.
What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging?
In this method, which is referred to as MR in the literature known as emarges, a high-power magnet is used for imaging using radio waves. In the method, the internal details of the body are displayed in a cross-section and thus three-dimensional data is provided. The magnetic resonance imaging device provides a very detailed visualization of the levels and soft tissues with high fluid content. In this way, it is possible to provide detailed data for almost all body formations. The high magnetic field due to the magnet property of the device is a risk for individuals with metal objects or pacemakers. This situation must be solved by interviewing with the official before shooting. It does not contain ionizing radiation as with other X - ray methods.
Other Imaging Methods
What is mammography?
Mammography is an imaging method in which the breast is displayed with the basic principles of radiography. X - ray imaging is provided on the mammogram device which is arranged to display soft tissues. The mammary gland is fixed in the special arrangement of the mammogram device. The compression of the nozzle prevents the mobility, provides a clear view, reduces the thickness of the tissue, ensures less radiation and prevents the structures from closing.
What is a panoramic dental x-ray?
Tooth x-rays are usually in the form of periapical films, which are usually taken by 2 to 3 teeth and are often applied by dentists. A panoramic dental x-ray is a imaging technique that displays a cross-sectional view of the upper and lower jaw bones and all teeth in a plane. The method uses x-ray.
This is basically a method that displays X-rays policies. X-ray imaging is provided with the principle of radioscopy. It is the main method of vascular interventional procedures. Following the entry into the vein, it provides guidance on access to the vein to be reached in the body. An opaque substance is introduced into the veins, vascularization of the tissues and abnormal vessel changes, if present. The procedure is used as a guideline for interventional vasculature treatment as well as its application.
This is a feature found on ultrasound devices. It is mainly used to determine the flow velocity and direction of blood in the vein. With this method, the presence of obstruction, stenosis and dysfunction in the vessels is investigated. Blood conditions of organs and abnormal tissues can be determined. By analyzing blood flow at the level of the vein, it is also possible to have an idea about the vascular diseases such as stenosis, obstruction or insufficiency of the veins connected to the same vein but not at the level of examination.
What is radiation?
Radiation, which refers to the radial propagation, is the phenomenon of energy release from the atoms of some excited matter. Radiation scattered substances are called radioactive substances. Radiation can be released from natural radioactive substances and can be produced in a controlled manner. Propagated radiation is in the form of electromagnetic radiation with electrical and magnetic properties. The visible light, which allows us to see and see our eyes, is electromagnetic radiation. The radio waves that contain all the energies used for ultraviolet light (infrared) and remote communication are also in the Electromagnetic radiation group. In medical imaging, radio waves are used in MR method. Radio waves are low energy and high wavelength. Apart from this, the most commonly used radiation for imaging purposes are x-rays and gamma rays. These rays are also high-energy and low wavelength electromagnetic radiation.
Finding X-Ray
X - rays were the result of the electrons accelerating from the cathode to the anode in the deaerated glass tube during the experiments, which aimed to pass the electric current into the void for the first time. The energy emerging in this experimental process was first discovered by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen during his experiments and observations on 8 November 1895. X-ray showed all the details of this invention and after the invention, he made studies on the use of radiation in medicine only within months and he received the first Nobel Prize in Physics with his invention. In our country, Dr. Esad Feyzi produced x - rays for medical use in a year after this meeting. The science of radiology was born with the discovery of X - rays, but it has reached its present position by methods such as Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance developed after 1970s.
What are the energies used in radiology?
The main electromagnetic radiations are used in radiology. Sound energy is also used. Electromagnetic radiation under the heading; x - rays are used mainly on X-rays and computed tomography. Gamma rays are used in nuclear medicine. Radio waves in the electromagnetic radiation group are used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sound energy is used in ultrasound. The sound energy is not electromagnetic energy, which occurs when the bodies transmit pressure vibrations.
How do harmful effects of radiation occur?
The known harmful effects of radiation today constitute ionizing radiation that is a group of electromagnetic radiation. Ionizing radiation is x-rays and gamma rays.
X-ray, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine are the main methods of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation, as the name suggests, is the ionizing radiation. Ionization is the result of the removal of electrons orbiting the atoms. As a result, the charge of the atoms changes. The deterioration of the structure of the atoms and their molecules ultimately affects the protein and enzyme activities in the cells. The most damaging effect, however, is the DNA that is in the nucleus of the cell. The deterioration in the structure of DNA will adversely affect the genetic structure of the cell. The resulting harmful effects can lead to changes that occur in the body with cell death, as well as to subsequent events, such as cancer, or mutations that may occur in later generations.
What are the basic principles of radiation safety?
Radiation risk arises from the use of ionizing radiation. In radiological examinations, it is inevitable to minimize the radiation dose that we are exposed to. The most important principle of protection is that there is no need for unnecessary examinations or the use of methods without radiation risk. There are three main headings for radiation safety in the radiation environment. These; time, distance and barrier. It should be located in the environment at the furthest possible point and in the presence of lead protective clothing or obstacles in the least possible time.
What is a Radiological Contrast?
Contrast material is more visible than body structures in imaging modalities. X-ray, Ultrasound, Tomography and MRI have a unique contrast agent used in every method. During radiological examinations, they are given to the body in a number of ways, mainly by oral or intravenous forms, to create a contrast in their region and to make the area more visible. Contrast materials are not used in every examination. It can be used in special cases. The role of the radiologist is very important when they should be used.
What is Nuclear Medicine?
Another branch of science for imaging purposes is Nuclear Medicine. The energy used under the Nuclear Medicine title is mainly the gamma rays within the group of electromagnetic radiation. In nuclear medicine, gamma-ray-emitting substances are attached to the body by binding to special-purpose molecules. When the related substances are delivered to the desired area, the radioactivity they are emitting is converted to the image by the devices. Thus, the main target organ or organism may be visualized.
What is hybrid imaging?
Radiology is a imaging method based on high anatomical data showing the details in the main body structure, whereas nuclear medicine applications provide a functional imaging for the imaging of the primary targeted organ or organism. The combination of both methods provides the advantage of showing both the intended structure and the detailed anatomic data. For this purpose, there are hybrid imaging devices such as PET - CT and PET - MR where radiology and nuclear medicine devices are used for imaging purposes.
What is Interventional Radiology?
By guiding radiological imaging methods, all procedures are performed by reaching the desired area in a small area of ​​intervention by entering the body with needles or catheters (thin plastic tubes). These methods are mainly divided into two groups as intravenous and intravascular methods. In non-vascular procedures, the desired level is reached directly through the skin and the procedure is performed. In intravascular procedures, arteries or cannulas enter into the vein and reach to the desired region through the vein. In this way, operations can be performed beyond long distances such as reaching the brain vessels from the groin. Examples of non-vascular methods include sampling of abnormal tissue (needle biopsy), introducing abnormal fluid accumulation with catheters (drainage), entering abnormal tumor tissue by burning abnormal tissue such as high heat, low heat, or freezing (ablation),
Examples of intravenous methods include the opening of obstructed vessels (balloon / stent angioplasty), closure of the region with abnormal enlargement in the vessel, or the area of ​​the vessel wall (sheathed stent), occlusion of the aneurysm at the level of the vein in the vein (aneurysm), abnormal vascularization occlusion of the tissue vessel (embolization). In addition, obstructive chemicals can be given (chemoembolization - TAKE) or radioactive material can be occluded in the tumors (radioembolization - TARE).
What is a biopsy?
Imaging-guided needle biopsy is a sampling procedure that is guided by the imaging method, with the help of a needle, to diagnose and confirm an abnormal appearance detected in the body by medical imaging. After the pathological evaluation of the specimen, it can be diagnosed whether the tumor is cancerous or not, and which types of tissues and cells are present. For this purpose, two types of needles are called the main needle and the thick needle. Samples taken with fine needles allow more cellular evaluation. Thick needles take textural samples. Whether the biopsy is done with a thin or thick needle is determined according to the radiological features of the appearance of the biopsy, where the suspicious view is and the expectations and recommendations of the pathologist.
Biopsy is often performed with local anesthesia. General anesthesia is rarely required. It is important to know your risk of bleeding before the procedure. If you are taking aspirin or a blood thinner before the procedure, you will need to leave it for up to 5 days. The risk of bleeding should be taken into account especially in deep and cannulated tissues and thick needle biopsies.
Follow-up after biopsy varies according to the risk of the procedure. Usually several hours of observation may be required. Since there is no incision or suture at the entrance of the needle, wound healing is fast and the dressing can be removed and bathed after about 3 days. Especially in the biopsies of superficial tissues such as thyroid or breast, a short observation after the procedure is sufficient. Follow-up is usually not needed.
In the body, abscess, cysts or bleeding in the body cavities such as the accumulation of fluid is applied to the interventional radiological method. Depending on the nature of the deposition fluid, the selected contact catheters are placed at the level of fluid accumulation under the guidance of imaging methods. If the cause of the disease is low, the needle is withdrawn after entry. However, most of the time, especially in patients with a large amount of fluid accumulation catheter is placed. Released to free evacuation. Depending on the amount of liquid, the process may take longer than a week. Resistance is a very effective method for the treatment of such accumulations using a safe access route and appropriate catheter selection.
In addition, accumulation may occur due to obstruction in the body emptying ducts, such as bile and urinary tract. In this case, bile or urine cannot be discarded and the ducts expand. In this case, the resistance can be done by entering the channel itself. In this way, the drainage of the biliary tract is called aj biliary drainage er and the urinary tract drainage is called diren nephrostomy Bu. In these cases, stent can be placed in the canals with stenosis where the stenosis level is crossed with thin guide wires (biliary stent, urinary stent).
Large cysts are prone to recurrence in patients who have undergone resistance. In addition, cysts known as dog cysts (hydatid cysts) will also repeat because they will not lose their vitality. In these cases, the risk of recurrence is prevented by giving fluids that destroy the cyst wall, such as alcohol, into the cyst in addition to the classical resistance. This is called