X-ray, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine are the main methods of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation, as the name suggests, is the ionizing radiation. Ionization is the result of the removal of electrons orbiting the atoms. As a result, the charge of the atoms changes. The deterioration of the structure of the atoms and their molecules ultimately affects the protein and enzyme activities in the cells. The most damaging effect, however, is the DNA that is in the nucleus of the cell. The deterioration in the structure of DNA will adversely affect the genetic structure of the cell. The resulting harmful effects can lead to changes that occur in the body with cell death, as well as to subsequent events, such as cancer, or mutations that may occur in later generations.
What are the basic principles of radiation safety?
Radiation risk arises from the use of ionizing radiation. In radiological examinations, it is inevitable to minimize the radiation dose that we are exposed to. The most important principle of protection is that there is no need for unnecessary examinations or the use of methods without radiation risk. There are three main headings for radiation safety in the radiation environment. These; time, distance and barrier. It should be located in the environment at the furthest possible point and in the presence of lead protective clothing or obstacles in the least possible time.
What is a Radiological Contrast?
Contrast material is more visible than body structures in imaging modalities. X-ray, Ultrasound, Tomography and MRI have a unique contrast agent used in every method. During radiological examinations, they are given to the body in a number of ways, mainly by oral or intravenous forms, to create a contrast in their region and to make the area more visible. Contrast materials are not used in every examination. It can be used in special cases. The role of the radiologist is very important when they should be used.
What is Nuclear Medicine?
Another branch of science for imaging purposes is Nuclear Medicine. The energy used under the Nuclear Medicine title is mainly the gamma rays within the group of electromagnetic radiation. In nuclear medicine, gamma-ray-emitting substances are attached to the body by binding to special-purpose molecules. When the related substances are delivered to the desired area, the radioactivity they are emitting is converted to the image by the devices. Thus, the main target organ or organism may be visualized.
What is hybrid imaging?
Radiology is a imaging method based on high anatomical data showing the details in the main body structure, whereas nuclear medicine applications provide a functional imaging for the imaging of the primary targeted organ or organism. The combination of both methods provides the advantage of showing both the intended structure and the detailed anatomic data. For this purpose, there are hybrid imaging devices such as PET - CT and PET - MR where radiology and nuclear medicine devices are used for imaging purposes.
What is Interventional Radiology?
By guiding radiological imaging methods, all procedures are performed by reaching the desired area in a small area of intervention by entering the body with needles or catheters (thin plastic tubes). These methods are mainly divided into two groups as intravenous and intravascular methods. In non-vascular procedures, the desired level is reached directly through the skin and the procedure is performed. In intravascular procedures, arteries or cannulas enter into the vein and reach to the desired region through the vein. In this way, operations can be performed beyond long distances such as reaching the brain vessels from the groin. Examples of non-vascular methods include sampling of abnormal tissue (needle biopsy), introducing abnormal fluid accumulation with catheters (drainage), entering abnormal tumor tissue by burning abnormal tissue such as high heat, low heat, or freezing (ablation),
Examples of intravenous methods include the opening of obstructed vessels (balloon / stent angioplasty), closure of the region with abnormal enlargement in the vessel, or the area of the vessel wall (sheathed stent), occlusion of the aneurysm at the level of the vein in the vein (aneurysm), abnormal vascularization occlusion of the tissue vessel (embolization). In addition, obstructive chemicals can be given (chemoembolization - TAKE) or radioactive material can be occluded in the tumors (radioembolization - TARE).
What is a biopsy?
Imaging-guided needle biopsy is a sampling procedure that is guided by the imaging method, with the help of a needle, to diagnose and confirm an abnormal appearance detected in the body by medical imaging. After the pathological evaluation of the specimen, it can be diagnosed whether the tumor is cancerous or not, and which types of tissues and cells are present. For this purpose, two types of needles are called the main needle and the thick needle. Samples taken with fine needles allow more cellular evaluation. Thick needles take textural samples. Whether the biopsy is done with a thin or thick needle is determined according to the radiological features of the appearance of the biopsy, where the suspicious view is and the expectations and recommendations of the pathologist.
Biopsy is often performed with local anesthesia. General anesthesia is rarely required. It is important to know your risk of bleeding before the procedure. If you are taking aspirin or a blood thinner before the procedure, you will need to leave it for up to 5 days. The risk of bleeding should be taken into account especially in deep and cannulated tissues and thick needle biopsies.
Follow-up after biopsy varies according to the risk of the procedure. Usually several hours of observation may be required. Since there is no incision or suture at the entrance of the needle, wound healing is fast and the dressing can be removed and bathed after about 3 days. Especially in the biopsies of superficial tissues such as thyroid or breast, a short observation after the procedure is sufficient. Follow-up is usually not needed.
In the body, abscess, cysts or bleeding in the body cavities such as the accumulation of fluid is applied to the interventional radiological method. Depending on the nature of the deposition fluid, the selected contact catheters are placed at the level of fluid accumulation under the guidance of imaging methods. If the cause of the disease is low, the needle is withdrawn after entry. However, most of the time, especially in patients with a large amount of fluid accumulation catheter is placed. Released to free evacuation. Depending on the amount of liquid, the process may take longer than a week. Resistance is a very effective method for the treatment of such accumulations using a safe access route and appropriate catheter selection.
In addition, accumulation may occur due to obstruction in the body emptying ducts, such as bile and urinary tract. In this case, bile or urine cannot be discarded and the ducts expand. In this case, the resistance can be done by entering the channel itself. In this way, the drainage of the biliary tract is called aj biliary drainage er and the urinary tract drainage is called diren nephrostomy Bu. In these cases, stent can be placed in the canals with stenosis where the stenosis level is crossed with thin guide wires (biliary stent, urinary stent).
Large cysts are prone to recurrence in patients who have undergone resistance. In addition, cysts known as dog cysts (hydatid cysts) will also repeat because they will not lose their vitality. In these cases, the risk of recurrence is prevented by giving fluids that destroy the cyst wall, such as alcohol, into the cyst in addition to the classical resistance. This is called